Available and renewable, wood is one of the most important building materials and is being used from the ancient times to the present moment, by the most of human cultures and societies that have existed throughout history. Wood can be perfectly integrated into the architectural structure, its qualities being indisputable in terms of providing comfort in homes and a superior aesthetic satisfaction. Regarding the habitat, a modern vision of construction needs to be adopted, one that presents a superior ecological quality by using natural materials that do not emit greenhouse gases and, also, which maintains a high level of comfort for the people living in those houses. Being highly flexible in use and allowing to model a wide variety of shapes and structures, currently, the wood is successfully used as the sole building material in house construction, as it has special qualities for thermal and energy efficiency, being, in the same time, a natural alternative, healthy and sustainable, unlike other building materials that are produced industrially on a large scale.
Wood is available in a variety of essences, with different hardness and specific qualities, which allows a full classification, either by the origin of the wood, and also, by the strength of the essence, classifications that have a major impact on how the wood is being used and processed in construction. Thus, there are two major categories of essences: (1) European essences, and (2) Exotic essences.
The European essences are found on the temperate zones and include hardwood, as: oak, beech, poplar, ash, walnut, elm, etc., and coniferous species: fir, pine, larch, spruce, red cedar etc. Exotic essences are extracted from tree species that grow in the great tropical and equatorial forests, such as ebony, mahogany, amaranth, frame, rosewood, teak etc.
Unlike hardwood species, the coniferous show a higher rate of growth and regeneration, if the planting and reforestation are made in optimal conditions. The wood of the coniferous species is made of longitudinal and / or transverse cells, that makes it ideal to be widely used for construction, carpentry, furniture and finishes. Further, the coniferous wood contains different types of resin in its composition, therefore has a higher resistance to water and humidity. Also, it is easily processed and allows numerous types of carved ornaments and handmade decorations. At the present moment, coniferous wood is widely used in carpentry, especially after it passes an engineering process of multi-layering. The multi-layer wood is made of several layers of wood that are joined together with a special water-based resin. Wood layering increases the hardness of the essence as it avoids the natural bending; such a wood is said "not to be working" anymore, as the individual layer curving is cancelled one by another within the entire assembly. Thus prepared, the multi-layer coniferous wood is easily transposed into interior and exterior carpentry: wood doors, wood windows, shutters, stairs and flooring, furniture etc.
A house made in an ecological manner is a sustainable solution that offers comfort, while being optimal for the environment and also, for the health and wellbeing of the persons that live in it. Such a house, made of natural materials, is warm during the cold weather and cool in summer, without the need for additional air conditioning equipment. The tiring sensation of clogged air and oven during the hot summers found in building constructions made of unnatural materials and inappropriate processes is successfully eliminated. Generally, an eco-house is made of a wood solid structure, used both for the roof and walls, and other materials such is: bricks, boards etc. At the present moment, the construction of eco-houses is significantly growing due to a raising awareness of their undeniable advantages. Further, an eco-house brings a feeling of nature connectivity, being in harmony with the principles of a long and healthy life.